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The BackgroundCommandService supports the BackgroundService, persisting action invocations as commands such that they can subsequently be invoked in the background.

The BackgroundService is responsible for capturing a memento representing the action invocation, and then hands off to the BackgroundCommandService to actually persist it. The isis-module-command-jdo module provides an implementation of BackgroundCommandService (BackgroundCommandServiceJdo) that persists to an RBMS entities.

The persisting of commands is only half the story; there needs to be a separate process to read the commands and execute them. The abstract BackgroundCommandExecution provides a mechanism to do this; the isis-module-command-jdo provides a concrete subclass (BackgroundCommandExecutionFromBackgroundCommandServiceJdo) that knows how to query for persisted (background) Commands such that they can be executed by a scheduler.


The BackgroundCommandService typically isn't called from domain classes, but it exists as a domain service so that it is pluggable into BackgroundService.


The API of the BackgroundCommandService is:

public interface BackgroundCommandService {

    public void schedule(
            final ActionInvocationMemento aim, 
            final Command command, 
            final String targetClassName, final String targetActionName, final String targetArgs);


where ActionInvocationMemento is a wrapper around a MementoService's Memento, capturing the details of an action invocation (for execution later on).

For the record, the API of ActionInvocationMemento is:

public class ActionInvocationMemento {

    public String getActionId() { ... }
    public String getTargetClassName() { ... }
    public String getTargetActionName() { ... }
    public Bookmark getTarget() { ... }
    public int getNumArgs() { ... }
    public Class<?> getArgType(final int num) throws ClassNotFoundException { ... }
    public <T> T getArg(final int num, final Class<T> type) { ... }

    public String asMementoString() { ... }

The asMementoString() method therefore lets the BackgroundCommandService implementation convert the action invocation into a simple string.


The isis-module-command-jdo module provides the BackgroundCommandServiceJdo implementation that persists Commands to an RDBMS.

There is also a supporting repository to query persisted background Commands:

In addition, there is a supporting contributions service that contributes actions for searching for persisted child and sibling Commands:


As noted above, this service isn't intended to be called from domain classes; rather it acts as a plug-in point to the default BackgroundServiceDefault service.

Related Services

As discussed above, this service supports the BackgroundService, persisting Commands such that they can be executed in the background.

There is also a tie-up with the CommandContext and its supporting CommandService service. The CommandContext service is responsible for providing a parent Command with which the background Commands can then be associated as children, while the CommandService is responsible for persisting those parent Commands (analogous to the way in which the BackgroundCommandService persists the child background Commands). The BackgroundCommandService ensures that these background Commands are associated with the parent "foreground" Command.

What that means is that the implementations of CommandService and BackgroundCommandService go together, hence both implemented in the isis-module-command-jdo module: (CommandServiceJdo and BackgroundCommandServiceJdo).

BackgroundCommandExecution concrete implementation

The BackgroundCommandExecution (in isis-core) is an abstract template class provided by isis-core that defines an abstract hook method to obtain background Commands to be executed:

public abstract class BackgroundCommandExecution 
                         extends AbstractIsisSessionTemplate {
    protected abstract List<? extends Command> findBackgroundCommandsToExecute();

The developer is required to implement this hook method in a subclass.

The isis-module-command-jdo module provides a concrete subclass that queries for commands persisted by its BackgroundCommandServiceJdo, namely:

Quartz Scheduler Configuration

Details are provided on the BackgroundService page.

Registering the Services

Assuming that the configuration-and-annotation services installer is configured:

then the BackgroundCommandServiceJdo and BackgroundCommandJdoRepository services are automatically registered if the isis-module-command-jdo module is on the classpath. The BackgroundCommandServiceJdoContributions service (because it influences the user interface) must be explicitly registered:,\